A phonographin its later forms also called a gramophone as a trademark sinceas a generic name in the UK since or since the s called a record playeris a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
The sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record".
To recreate the sound, the surface is similarly rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it, very faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring hornor directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope -type earphones. The phonograph was invented in by Thomas Edison. In the s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, which is predominantly used in many languages.
Later improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, and the sound and equalization systems.
The disc phonograph record was the dominant audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century. In the s, phonograph use on a standard record player declined sharply due to the rise of the cassette tapecompact discand other digital recording formats.
However, records are still a favorite format for some audiophilesDJs and turntablists particularly in hip hop and electronic dance musicand have undergone a revival since the s. The original recordings of musicians, which may have been recorded on tape or digital methods, are sometimes re-issued on vinyl.
Usage of terminology is not uniform across the English-speaking world see below. In more modern usage, the playback device is often called a "turntable", "record player", or " record changer ", although each of these terms denote categorically distinct items.
When used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are often colloquially called "decks". The new term may have been influenced by the existing words phonographic and phonographywhich referred to a system of phonetic shorthand ; in The New York Times carried an advertisement for "Professor Webster's phonographic class", and in the New York State Teachers Association tabled a motion to "employ a phonographic recorder" to record its meetings.
Arguably, any device used to record sound or reproduce recorded sound could be called a type of "phonograph", but in common practice the word has come to mean historic technologies of sound recordinginvolving audio-frequency modulations of a physical trace or groove.
In the lateth and earlyth centuries, "Phonograph", "Gramophone", "Graphophone", "Zonophone", "Graphonole" and the like were still brand names specific to various makers of sometimes very different i. In British English"gramophone" may refer to any sound-reproducing machine using disc recordswhich were introduced and popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company.
Originally, "gramophone" was a proprietary trademark of that company and any use of the name by competing makers of disc records was vigorously prosecuted in the courts, but in an English court decision decreed that it had become a generic term;  it has been so used in the UK and most Commonwealth countries ever since. Often the home record player was part of a system that included a radio radiogram and, later, might also play audiotape cassettes.
From aboutsuch a system began to be described as a "hi-fi" high-fidelity, monophonic or a "stereo" most systems being stereophonic by the mids. In American English"phonograph", properly specific to machines made by Edison, was sometimes used in a generic sense as early as the s to include cylinder-playing machines made by others.
But it was then considered strictly incorrect to apply it to Emile Berliner 's upstart Gramophone, a very different machine which played discs although Edison's original Phonograph patent included the use of discs . By the time of the First World War, the mass advertising and popularity of the Victrola a line of disc-playing machines characterized by their concealed horns sold by the Victor Talking Machine Company was leading to widespread generic use of the word "victrola" for any machine that played discs, which were generally called "phonograph records" or simply "records", but almost never "Victrola records".Choose the best football tipsters on our football predictions site.
Report Form Report wrong graded result, spam, inappropriate language or other content. We assume that Mourinho will be able to take advantage of the problems in the game 'citizens' and inflict the first defeat to the leader in the championship.
It should also be noted that despite the fact that both teams score well, in the confrontations recently, more than two goals have rarely been scored. Gallen have finished with over 2. So all statistics are in favor of goals today. Premier League Register now to get the best odds and highest limits in the world. Championship Register now to get the best odds and highest limits in the world. Football predictions sites StakeHunters will strive hard to be the best football prediction site in the world.
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We give footballbasketballvolleyball and tennis betting predictions. Now it became a routine to cross check my football picks with yours and the job you guys are doing is great. Keep up the good work and let's make them bookies cry. Just wanted to drop a quick thank you to the expert crew of Winning Gang. Nice predictions, how can we see vip stats.
That exercise alone made this whole post worth it. The resulting list is items I saw while watching that made me think. Initially my list was much longer but I ended up shortening it during my second pass.Hernani da silva 2020 download
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Home About Us Addicts Guidlines Add Friends Help Me. This rollercoaster ride of a turn-based strategy game starts out almost impossibly strong, but by the end I mostly wished it'd been over three hours earlier. Call of Duty's return to World War II looks great, but feels flat and uninspired from start to finish.
We gather together the week before E3 to cover the games Jeff saw during his pre-show sojourn and make a bunch of very half-cocked predictions. Listen in to see just how wrong we were. Giant Bomb discusses the latest video game news and new releases, taste-test questionable beverages, and get wildly off-topic in this weekly podcast.
We take a break from GOTY deliberations to talk about. Our impossibly full studio brings you a chaotic discussion of the games of the day, live trivia play, the dire state of loot boxes, the meats of the Mushroom Kingdom, and the ongoing mystery of the fingernail bandit. Loot boxes keep rearing their randomized heads all through this podcast, but we also manage to chat at length about our GOTY cram lists, Battle Chef Brigade, the perilous fate of the Trap Trebek, baby shampoo taste tests, and definitely not what the best Metal Gear Solid is.
This week we're cramming in games new and old, from Battlefront II and Mario Odyssey to Nier and Horizon, with a dash of EA acquisitions, Mario movies, Xbox One X sales, prank call analysis, discarded Sega hardware, and a brand new producer. This week it takes us two hours to talk through all the big new releases flying to and fro, and that's before we even get to Blizzcon news, industry downsizing, trophies 4 cash, the perfect Street Fighter, and historic Monopoly scams.
Virtual Reality's own Will Smith joins us to gab about Fire Emblem Warriors, PUBG hacks, secret Switch firmware, new Hitman stuff, old Xbox games, more storage units, and the recent allegations roiling the industry. This week's scrappy show covers Gran Turismo Sport, The Evil Within 2, Super NES wizardry, the shocking closure of Visceral Games, the latest VR goings on, runaway segment music, and your emails.
We've come through the smoke and flame to talk about Shadow of War (and its loot boxes), the truth about Mugman, Street Fighter V's Arcade Edition, many much Gundam Versus, shower spiders, Erik Estrada, and disturbing genetic facts. The spookiest month begins with indie favs like Steamworld Dig 2 and Cuphead, a Destiny 2 raid post-mortem, Forza progression woes, Red Dead 2 trailer impressions, bootleg Star Fox 2 carts, and your b-mails.
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There's some PUBG, there's some sneakin', a weird baby(. Share: Twitter Facebook Reddit Filed Under: Landmark, Destiny, The Evil Within, Disney Fantasia: Music Evolved, The Order: 1886, Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor, No Man's Sky, WWE 2K15, Batman: Arkham Knight, Just Survive, Lego Batman 3: Beyond Gotham, Battlefield Hardline, Battlecry, Mortal Kombat X, Forza Horizon 2 iTunes SoundCloud Download RSS 00:00:00 Episode List Load Comments Previous episodes 618 results 1 2 3 4 5.
She did, however, make sure we received a travel bag with an excellent personalized tour book and driving map.harman/kardon cleaning dome technique
Our accommodations and highlights the to see along the way were clearly marked, and we were very pleased with every place she recommended. We saw the beautiful natural features and learned the incredible history of the island along the way. Iceland is unique - rich in natural features and culture. Almost everyone speaks English, so even though the Icelandic language was difficult, we were always able to find help.Swift binoculars
This was a fantastic trip - probably the best in natural beauty I've ever taken. Someday, I hope to return, and I will use Nordic Visitor as my choice of travel planner. We cannot wait to return to Iceland and look forward to booking future holidays with Nordic visitor. What was excellent in this case was that we had to do very little ourselves and it was all so well organised and arranged by Alexandra.
We wanted to celebrate our Golden Wedding Anniversary by booking an " Iceland Complete " self drive tour of the island and spent many months planning our trip with Nordic Visitor. The young lady at NV was so helpful and friendly and arranged the most wonderful holiday - comfortable hotels or guesthouses in spectacular positions and only a few hours driving each day. Nothing was too much trouble and she made it all so easy.
NV were so professional with the mapsdetailed itinerarycell phone and lots of helpful advice. It ranks as one of the best holidays we have ever had ,arranged by quite the best travel company we have ever used.
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They arranged everything nicely and we had very good time in Iceland. We got to see a lot of Iceland by the Super Jeep excursions. Also we were flown to Akureyri in North of Iceland to see the Northern Lights. Was by far the best organised trip we have been on, Iceland is such a beautiful place, and Nordic Visitor made it all so easy and pointed out all the best places to see. Our Contact Erla was excellent, very helpful.I mean Google has made newspaper sites authority sites in niches like online dating.
Some newspaper sites are so stupid they send out crazy link selling emails too, like above, and indeed, some folk do out them.
They do make a business of outing folk. I can tell you I usually ignore all reciprocal link exchange requests via unsolicited emails and recommend you do to.
The quantity, quality, and relevance of links count towards your rating. The sites that link to you can provide context about the subject matter of your site, and can indicate its quality and popularity. However, some Webmasters engage in link exchange schemes and build partner pages exclusively for the sake of cross-linking, disregarding the quality of the links, the sources, and the long-term impact it will have on their sites. IF YOU TAKE A SECOND AND VISUALISE in your head the link scheme in place and the relationship between pages via links in the reciprocal links hub scenario, you can see how easy it is to do so.
Google can probably compute and identify that one a lot faster than you can its so obvious. A useful links page out to unrelated sites on a low-quality domain is just spam to Google and more often or not the pages your links are on will just be ignored by Google, so there is no point getting a link from these pages.
Linking is the foundation of the web. Without links, there would be no web as we know it, no Google even, so never be scared of linking to useful sites or pages. In fact, Google WANTS or, at least, EXPECTS you to do this and will thank you for it at some level. Do you really want that.
Of course, you should ALWAYS be LOOKING for high-quality links, whether you link back to those sites or not. One-way links are better for ranking in search engines as they indicate editorially approved links from other sites to yours. I am working with a client at the moment in a global market that makes something amazing a lot of blue chip companies pay a lot of money for. The aim is to get the BRAND websites to VOTE for our site FIRST, so OUR search engine rankings improve, because Google now TRUSTS our site because of these new quality links on sites it already trusts.Umn grades due
I think all Brand managers would like another good-news-page in the SERPs, so creating a case study for their brand, on your website, is probably better than a link on a links page Google will probably eventually ignore.
If a very trusted site links to my site and gave me a ranking boost, am I expected to believe that linking back to them will remove my ranking boost.
Linking back to a site that links to you is a very common thing on the web. Consider the small site that links to its industry body, and a year down the line the small site is a big player, with links from the industry body. Is that link useless. I would think Google is a lot smarter than that, at some level. I think Google would, at all times, take into account the trust and authority of the sites in question, and whether or not it has any reason not to trust the sites.
I never link to a site JUST BECAUSE THEY LINK TO ME, because the chances are, they are linking to ANY site out there regardless or not if it is a bad neighbourhood. Google reserves the right to penalise you badly if you link to one of these, or are linked from one of them.Prediction: Rams 27, Eagles 23 Eliot Shorr-Parks - Eagles Reporter, NJ Advance MediaThis is a very tough spot for the Eagles.
PICK: Eagles 24, Rams 21 Darryl Slater - Jets Reporter, NJ Advance MediaAfter stubbing their toe in Seattle last week, the Eagles, having stayed out West, will rebound against the Rams. Prediction: Eagles 30, Rams 20 nj. Hi Subscribe today for full access on your desktop, tablet, and mobile device. Already a print edition subscriber, but don't have a login. View the E-NewspaperManage your NewslettersView your Insider deals and moreMember ID CardSupportSupportLog OutLet friends in your social network know what you are reading aboutThe Buffalo Bills host the Indianapolis Colts in a Week 13 game at New Era Field.
Sal Maiorana breaks down all the angles in his 3 and Out preview. Sal Maiorana, Virginia ButlerFrank Gore (23) and Jacoby Brissett lead the Colts into Buffalo Sunday. The fact that they still have a road game at New England makes that scenario a bit unlikely, but the other three games are certainly winnable, and the first of those comes up Sunday at New Era Field when the Indianapolis Colts take up residence on the other sideline.
The Colts are one of the worst teams in the NFL, and the Bills should take care of business even with rookie quarterback Nathan Peterman expected to start.
A win would get Buffalo to 7-6 with Miami in town next week before the game with the Patriots. However, the postseason dream would die Sunday if the Bills falter against Indianapolis. Can the Bills win offensively on the early downs. Indy is allowing just 2.
Buffalo, as always, will have to rely on its running game, especially with rookie Nathan Peterman most likely at quarterback in place of injured Tyrod Taylor.
But if the Colts stuff the run and put the Bills in unfavorable down and distance situations, that ramps up the pressure on Peterman. The Colts are solid on the front line, but are weak at linebacker, especially with John Simon getting hurt last week and now out for the season. This is a matchup the Bills have to exploit with LeSean McCoy. New Bills receiver Kelvin Benjamin caught 3 passes in a 47-10 loss to the Saints. How much will Peterman and Kelvin Benjamin matter to the passing game.
However, the Bills need to find a way to take advantage of a Colts defense that ranks dead last in the NFL in passing yards allowed and 30th in sacks per pass attempt. The last time we saw Benjamin, he was catching a perfectly-thrown 20-yard pass over the middle from Peterman in Los Angeles. He hurt his knee on the play, left the game, and Peterman melted down with five interceptions. He and Peterman have worked closely for three months on the scout team and have a connection with each other.
Can the Bills dominate Colts QB Jacoby Brissett again. Buffalo held him to 205 harmless passing yards and pitched a shutout that day.
Brissett has completed only 60 percent of his passes, has a mere 10 TD passes to seven interceptions, and is still learning the full scope of the offensive system as he joined the team right at the start of the regular season. Gaines can combine to slow down WR T. Theoretically, there is no way the Bills can lose this game. The Colts are awful, as their 3-9 record suggests.
Buffalo has the better roster from top to bottom, and that should carry the day.So whatever bets you are looking for all you need to do is check back each day for today's betting tips. Here at SBAT, we provide lots of different kinds of bets.
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Tigers reporter Philip Buckingham gives you the lowdown for Saturday's Championship fixture at the KCOM Stadium (3pm). Fresh starts are nothing new to supporters after welcoming Marco Silva in January and then Leonid Slutsky in June, but the appointment of Nigel Adkins on Thursday is arguably the most crucial of this turbulent calendar year.
City need this to work. Relegation from the Premier League was a blow but falling into League One this season would be close to a catastrophe. That danger was outlined by Adkins on his opening day in office and for all he outlined ambitions for an eventual top-flight return, there is a more pressing battle to be won. Not since October 21 has this team won in the Championship and confidence is suffering as a result.
Adkins will have a wheelbarrow full of ideas but only wins can really pick up a suffering team.
Only once in 13 games have the Londoners been beaten, triggering a smooth ascent from 23rd to 11th under Dean Smith. The visitors should provide inspiration for a City side seeking their own revival in the Championship but, as Adkins has warned, the turnaround might well require patience. NIGEL Adkins will be without top scorer Jarrod Bowen as he aims to mark his first game as head coach with a win over Brentford. Kevin Stewart and Markus Henriksen are expected to overcome their own injury problems from last weekend, but there is a question mark over Michael Hector.
The defender, who played under Adkins at Reading, has been suffering from a hamstring injury and Ondrej Mazuch will continue if Hector is unavailable.
Stephen Kingsley (groin) is close to a comeback but Adkins has inherited a squad depleted by long-term injuries with Ryan Mason (fractured skull), Moses Odubajo (knee), Abel Hernandez (Achilles) and Will Keane (knee) all out of action.
Brentford boss Dean Smith is without Lasse Vibe for the trip to the KCOM Stadium but Neal Maupay makes a timely return from suspension.
The Dutch winger missed last weekend with a minor hamstring injury but has been declared fit ahead of travelling to East Yorkshire. Midfielder Alan Judge is a long-term absentee. The 29-year-old has not played for over 18 months now after breaking his tibia and fibula but is hopefully finally closing in on a long-awaited return to action in the early months of 2018.
Brentford have drawn a blank just once in their last 15 games and among their chief threats is Ollie Watkins. The 21-year-old, snapped up from Exeter City in the summer, has already netted eight goals from the left wing this season. Tomori has shown himself to be a talented defender during his time on loan from Chelsea but, like so many around him at City, he has to eradicate the lapses in concentration from his game.
What makes the current run all the more extraordinary are the results that preceded it. Not until September 23 did they finally record their first win of the season but what has followed has lifted the Bees from 23rd to 11th. Brentford are far from invincible on their travels, losing at Sheffield United, Ipswich, Sheffield Wednesday and Cardiff this season, though good wins have been collected away at Bolton, Preston and Birmingham.
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